This study is to investigate the potential of wolfberry water extracts for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the relationship between their anti-AD property and the geographic locations in China. Total extracts of all wolfberry samples showed the potent to decrease self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation and Cu2+-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation and the antioxidant capacity as well as the bioactivity for binding biometal. A transgenic drosophila model assay revealed that TE of S1 and S6 (S1-TE and S6-TE) at 100 g/mL demonstrated the potent rescue effect on memory loss compared to the positive control memantine at 20 g/mL. Further study also revealed the polysaccharide extracts could contribute to their anti-AD property, and the anti-AD activity conspicuously depends on growing environment. Wolfberry samples S1 and S6 showed much more potent anti-AD property. Meanwhile this study demonstrated that the Chinese commonly consumed wolfberry in boiling water might have the beneficial function to prevent AD pathology.